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Timber and Its Use in Industrial Truck Design

Timber and Its Use in Industrial Truck Design

Many types of timber are employed in commercial truck bodywork nowadays, and it is employed in a selection of different kinds ranging from sections for framing, chipboard for partitions, to faced plywood for decorative panels. Manufactured timber panels are also applied in conjunction with other supplies such as aluminum and plastics to make panels for particular uses which contain warmth and audio insulation and to make improvements to resistance to normal put on and the weather.

Some timbers are much more suitable for auto bodywork than others due to the fact of their superior strength, resistance to dress in, decay and fire, or visual appearance.

Whilst timber is made use of in quite a few kinds, it is all obtained from both tender wooden trees or temperate or tropical hardwoods.


There are a massive quantity of softwood trees, which include things like lots of kinds of pine, fur, and spruce which make up about 90 for every cent of all timbers used usually in the U.S.A and Europe. These trees are ordinarily observed in the northern hemisphere most of them are cone bearing and evergreen, but there are some exceptions. In truth some styles of softwoods are more challenging than hardwoods.

There is a great provide of softwoods and since a lot less time is demanded to experienced and they are much easier to do the job they are commonly cheaper than hardwoods. Softwoods are makes use of for the sides and flooring of mineral carrying motor vehicles, given that it is more cost-effective and easier to substitute. It is also employed for made panels for other industrial vehicle bodies.


These are attained from wide leaf trees, and there are around 2000 kinds together with such very well recognized varieties as oak, ash, teak and mahogany. All basal wood, which is a lot softer than softwoods, is in truth a hardwood, considering that it is the structure that decides the group not the texture.

Because the hardwoods take considerably extended to mature, are more hard to acquire and get the job done, and consider considerably longer to season they are noticeably far more pricey. Nevertheless, they are commonly much more robust, extra tough and have considerably a lot more works by using than softwoods.

Hardwoods are divided into two groups:-

1. Tropical. These are from trees observed in Central Africa, India and South The usa and involve the numerous distinct styles of teak, mahogany and ebony.

2. Temperate. The versions discovered in this group are oak, walnut, and ash are some of the temperate hardwoods located in U.S.A, Europe, Japan and Australia.

Hardwoods are applied for framing and in some sorts of veneer on panels for interior finishing. Also hardwoods these types of as ash are really suited for curved framing members.

Manufactured Panels.

Plywood, block-board, chipboard, MDF and hardboard panels are often used instead of strong timber panels, and have several rewards. They can be attained in larger measurements, are usually much better and are a lot more steady, which indicates labor charges can be diminished when in comparison with other approaches of covering huge spots with equal tongue and groove jointed timber.


Plywood is made by gluing layers of veneer with each other at correct angles to just about every other. This helps prevent splitting and enormously improves the power of the panel. Curved customers can also be developed by laying the veneers on a suited mold or sort ahead of gluing.

Birch, ash, pine and fir are used in the manufacture of plywood but quite a few other kinds are employed for the facial area aspect of decorative panels. Plywood is obtainable in numerous thicknesses and dimensions from which vehicle overall body flooring can be produced in one particular piece.

Block board.

There are a range of made boards generating use of reliable timber core inventory. A person of these is block board and this is composed of softwood glued alongside one another and confronted with veneers of timber these kinds of as birch and mahogany. Massive panels up to about 2 inches in thickness are manufactured and used in flooring and partitions.


Chipboard is built from graded wood chips which are bonded with each other underneath force with synthetic resins and adhesives to variety huge sturdy panels .5 inch to 1 inch thick. These can be confronted with lots of distinctive products to give painted, plastic or veneered surfaces. It has changed stable timber for lots of functions and due to the fact of the sizes manufactured it is a helpful automobile setting up product.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).

MDF is produced by bonding wood fibers jointly utilizing glue, warmth and force. It is a pretty adaptable content, but can only be utilized for inside bodywork. It have to be sealed / painted as it little by little emits urea formaldehyde which is a recognised carcinogen and eye, throat and lung irritant. Appropriate safety methods need to always be made use of when operating with this content in any way.


This is yet another helpful materials which, for the reason that of its lesser thicknesses is pretty ideal for inside paneling. It is manufactured from compressed timber fibers and commonly has a easy aspect with the reverse aspect obtaining a tough or mesh finish.

Identification of timbers.

Due to the fact a lot of kinds of timber are utilized in automobile body perform, it is feasible to discover the more popular kinds this sort of as oak and teak. Most varieties have distinctive features and attributes, and when samples are cautiously examined it is often achievable to establish a specific form. The adhering to options really should be thought of:-

1. The general physical appearance.

  • i) Colour – purple, brown, yellow, white.
  • ii) Grain – near or open, straight or twisted.
  • iii) Texture – hard or soft, tough or easy.
  • iv) Figure – form of grain

2. Pounds.

Weighing a sample is not a responsible take a look at since the weight will depend on the dampness material and even the weights of samples might vary.

3. Use a hand lens.

Examination of the floor and close grain may perhaps reveal distinct options.

4. Use a microscope.

The use of a microscope will empower a considerably closer assessment of a slim portion.

5. Dissolving a sample.

This will permit a microscopic examination of the condition and dimensions of cells and fibers.

It need to be remembered that attributes and shade may perhaps be influenced by the origin, level of expansion, and cure considering that felling and numerous other aspects.

Timber Problems.

Just one of the major down sides with timber is that flaws might be current or might develop later on. Some of these can be taken care of satisfactorily but some others may perhaps have to have the part to be changed. Some defects can be prevented totally by thorough felling, conversion and seasoning, but a awareness of the defects will permit you to make the greatest achievable use of the timber that could be to some degree inferior.


These are not generally a severe defect considering that in quite a few instances timber is included with paint, panels or other disguises and in timbers these kinds of as knotty pine they are handled so as to boost the visual appeal. On the other hand knots must not be existing in framing timbers, some attractive panels or other scenarios in which strength or overall look could be afflicted. Knots are just about generally existing and timber is typically graded by the distribution and amount of knots current. Some timbers have extra than other folks, so cautious assortment is usually worthwhile.

Splits and shakes.

Shakes show up in several types and are not often evident right up until the tree is felled and sawn into logs. Heart and cup shakes may perhaps not current much of a problem but other varieties this kind of as the ring and star shakes can result in worthwhile timber staying unusable. In the course of the drying out or seasoning the moisture leaves the timber more swiftly from the ends than the sides. If this is also quick other splits may happen.


Lots of varieties of timber are influenced by different insects, and chemical therapy may possibly be successful. The option is to clear away and burn the contaminated element and healthy a new piece.

Dry rot.

Timber, which is stored in conditions which are damp or lack air flow will shed its energy and become tender and spongy. If this comes about timbers really should be wrecked.


This is a prevalent defect and is brought on by uneven shrinkage through seasoning. Softwoods are additional prone to this, given that softwoods comprise extra dampness than hardwoods. Warping can be reduced by sawing the logs radially in its place of tangently. If you study the end grain of planks it is probable to decide which way they have been minimize from the log.

Results in of timber flaws.

  • i) Storm hurt.
  • ii) Exposed expanding problems.
  • iii) Inexperienced felling.
  • iv) Incorrect conversion.
  • v) Lousy seasoning.
  • vi) Poor storage problems.
  • vii) Careless variety and use.

Seasoning timbers.

Living trees may perhaps have a humidity information of in between 50{a00e2a65948905ad150ce0b73b1a2569b7e687daf05a5ba82e14b7544a95be8e} and 100{a00e2a65948905ad150ce0b73b1a2569b7e687daf05a5ba82e14b7544a95be8e} and considering the fact that this is also superior the trees, when felled have to be seasoned or dried until eventually the dampness content is lowered. Timber for car body get the job done need to have a dampness material of 12 {a00e2a65948905ad150ce0b73b1a2569b7e687daf05a5ba82e14b7544a95be8e}- 15{a00e2a65948905ad150ce0b73b1a2569b7e687daf05a5ba82e14b7544a95be8e}. If the dampness written content is also significant the timber will dry out even further and shrink after use. If it is far too lower the timber will take up moisture from the atmosphere and quite possibly swell. To locate the humidity content a sample of timber is weighed in its usual problem and then weighed yet again after it has been cautiously dried out. The dampness content is then calculated as follows:-

The humidity Written content of the timber (M.C. {a00e2a65948905ad150ce0b73b1a2569b7e687daf05a5ba82e14b7544a95be8e}) is calculated by getting the moist excess weight, subtracting the dry body weight, and dividing the answer by the dry weight and multiplying by one particular hundred.

The process of drying out a piece of timber to receive its dampness content material is unneeded in exercise, for the reason that electrical devices are employed to give immediate readings There are a selection of motives why timber really should be thoroughly addressed (seasoned):-

  • I) It is a great deal stronger than unseasoned timber.
  • II) There is less hazard of decay and assault by insects.
  • III) Portray, staining and other ending processes can be carried out effectively on seasoned timber.

We should really recall that the cells in a piece of timber are like picket buckets. Massive amounts of water in the cavities and the walls, so it is crucial for timber to be thoroughly seasoned. Right after the trees have been felled, the logs are taken to the observed mill wherever they are transformed or sawn into planks or other sections. Given that this exposes a larger surface location to the atmosphere seasoning time is reduced. The technique used to observed or convert the logs will also have an affect on the shrinkage, warping or other timber defects talked about beforehand.

Air Drying.

The sawn timber is piled in stacks with sticks or wood strips separating every single layer. This lets the air to circulate freely about just about every piece. The top rated of the stack really should be guarded from the solar and the rain, and considering that humidity will dry out more promptly from the finishes of the planks, these are sometimes shielded to stop close splits. The air drying approach is inexpensive and normally sales opportunities to better quality timber, but it is a slow method, getting up to a number of a long time. The timber is liable to staining and insect attack and the humidity written content is really almost never a lot less than the surrounding region.

Kiln Drying.

This is a substantially a lot quicker technique, which results in timber with a more closely controlled moisture material. The timber is positioned on trolleys and put in a kiln where the temperature and humidity are controlled. Air circulation may well be by purely natural draft or pressured by electrical fans. Artificially seasoned timbers may well be extra brittle and other problems could take place, but the reduced time expected is huge gain. Some timbers are air dried for a period of time prior to currently being kiln dried.

Timber Storage.

Seasoning timber processes could acquire a number of a long time and the timber may possibly be saved for a additional period in advance of it is applied. In buy to maintain it in superior affliction certain safety measures will have to be noticed:-

  • i) To avert staining the timber really should be guarded from substances and other overseas make any difference, e.g. soot.
  • ii) Too much rain and warmth should really be avoided and if stored indoors enough air flow should really be offered.
  • iii) It ought to be stacked in a proper method to avoid boards getting twisted or warped. The supporting blocks need to be specifically beneath each and every other if not the timber will start out to bend.

Wood preservatives acceptable for use prior to portray.

This variety of preservative is commonly of a minimal viscosity and can generally be made use of prior to the software of coach or decorative enamels and their painting process. It can be used by brush, spray or dipping and is ordinarily authorized overnight to dry right before software of the higher than stated paint units. This promotes fantastic adhesion and assists to lessen the troubles of timber ailment and rot.

Ahead of utilizing this type of products it is important to make positive that it does not contain any waxes or silicone additives.

Priming of timbers.

Prior to the priming of any timber it is essential to test that the timber is clean up, dry and free of charge from any oil residues. The timber need to be completely flatted with a suited quality of glass paper and degreased with a ‘lint-free’ fabric which has been dampened with white spirits or a acceptable solvent.

Priming really should then be carried out working with a suitable primer. It is essential when priming that all locations are adequately primed. This involves timber ends and tongue and grooves, wherever regions are to be included with steel fitments or human body sections. The purpose for this is to avert the ingress of dampness which would end result in paint flaking.

Timbers that contains knots need to be treated in the next manner, prior to priming:-

I) The knots must be burnt with a blowtorch to extract surplus resin.

II) The timber need to be comprehensively rubbed down and degreased as above.

III) Each and every knot must be dealt with with a single or two coats of shellac, and permitted enough time to dry.

IV) Prime the timber as over.

Wood finishes.

These are non-pigmented finishes. Among the those out there are wax polishes, sealer coats, very long and quick oil varnishes, alkyd varnishes, yacht varnishes, one pack polyurethanes and teak oil. All these are suited for brush software. For spray software only, use the adhering to – cellulose lacquers, two pack polyurethanes, two pack catalyzed lacquers and one and two pack epoxies. The prerequisites of a wooden finish are:-

  • i) Shade adaptability.
  • ii) Construct.
  • iii) Existence expectations.
  • iv) Acid or alkali resistance.

Sealers and wax polishes.

Sealers – These are cellulose centered.

Waxes – These are petroleum centered. A single instance is chilled wax which is pretty brief drying, offers tiny discoloration to the wood, and makes a excellent ordinary finish.

Waxes – Silicone based mostly. These waxes are very brief drying and deliver a challenging water-resistant end. The wooden desires to be sealed prior to use, and it tends to give it a cloudy visual appearance.

Waxes – Beeswax. This is a natural merchandise from honeycomb which has been rendered down with white spirits. It can be used by brush or rag and provides a very good complete that can be re-polished.

Long oil varnishes.

These include much more oil than resin in its formulation. The resin utilized is usually an alkyd or fossil resin. Very long oil varnishes are adaptable, due to the sum of oil and have fantastic sturdiness, building it excellent for exterior usage. It also has a quite obvious complete. Polyurethanes are used for wood which is still left in exposed ailments, but tends to be somewhat tender for inside use. The lifestyle expectancy is two to two and a 50 percent decades, and a 4 coat method is encouraged, i.e. implement one extremely skinny (diluted) coat followed by 3 total coats.

Limited oil Varnishes.

These varnishes are brief drying but tend to be fairly brittle. They dry to a challenging finish and are far more acceptable for interior use, as they do not have the adaptability for exterior use.

Alkyd varnishes.

These are very clear quick drying varnishes which are suitable for indoor and out of doors use. They are well-known as a varnish for car or truck bodies, and are also used as a 4-coat process.

Teak oil.

This oil is simple to utilize, but liberal coatings are required to restore the natural shade of the timber.

French sharpening.

This is based on shellac and methylated spirits. It is speedy drying and leads to the timber to darken. It is used applying a pad, created of a packed piece of wool or gauze, lined by a piece of cotton cloth. It is however, brittle and easily weakened by h2o and white spirits. It is mainly employed in antique furnishings.

Nitrocellulose lacquers.

These lacquers occur in two styles, the pre-catalyzed and the nitro-urethanes. These have amino and polyurethane resins respectively.


There is no doubt of the advantages of making use of timber in commercial truck bodywork now. Surely other components have and will come alongside to consider and replace it, but for its flexibility and availability it is continue to unrivalled and will be for a lengthy time to come.

Understanding your timbers and how to glance soon after them will make sure the highest life expectancy from your truck or industrial auto.